The Proto-Indo-Europeans of the Pontic Caspian Steppe and other parts of Eastern Europe in the neolithic worshipped a paternal deity who they called Dyḗus ph₂tḗr “sky father”. With comparative linguistics and comparative mythology we can learn a lot about this ancient god from whom Greek Zeus, Roman Jupiter, Irish Dagda, Vedic Dyáuṣ Pitṛ́ and Norse Odin and many others also derive. In this video I explain what we know about the god’s mythic roles relating to cattle, his relationship to other gods in the Indo-European religion and his association with different animals in later pagan religions.

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Music in order:
theme song: Wolcensmen - Sunne
Altyn Tuu - Altai Tuva
Xurious - Steppe expansion
Elegiac - Ashwind interlude
Doug Maxwell - Bansure raga
Sjhof - path to the temple
Ormgård - Sjálfsforn
Stark Von Oben - Imperator
Halindir - Hedelandet II
Kevin McLeod - Dhaka
Myling - Töcken
Borg - The May queen enters the circle

Anthony, D., ‘The Horse, the Wheel, and Language’ 2007
Dumezil, G., ‘Mythe et Épopée’ 1973
Dumezil, G., ‘Mitra-Varuna: An Essay on Two Indo-European Representations of Sovereignty’, 1988
Kershaw, K., ‘The one-eyed god: Odin and the (Indo-)Germanic Männerbünde’ (Journal of Indo-European studies monograph) 2000
Matasović, R., ‘A Reader in Comparative Indo-European Religion’ 2010
Mylonas, G. E., ‘The Eagle of Zeus’ 1946
Puhvel, J., ‘Victimal Hierarchies in Indo-European Animal Sacrifice’: The American Journal of Philology , Autumn, 1978, Vol. 99, No. 3 (Autumn, 1978), pp. 354-362
Puhvel, J., ‘Comparative Mythology’ 1987

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