A border dispute between the German Confederation and the Kingdom of Denmark in the regions of Schleswig and Holstein breaks out into an inconclusive war in 1848-1850, and tensions remain into the 1860's.

Meanwhile, a common culture was developing across the German population of Europe, with the literary works of Goethe and Schiller, and philosophers Kant and Hegel. On the political scene, Otto von Bismarck rises to power as the Prussian chief minister. He urges the need for the king’s military reforms, famously stating that the great questions of the time would not be resolved by speeches or parliamentary votes but by ‘iron and blood’.

This month, August 2022, I'm doing a cycling challenge to raise money for Brain Tumour Research. More info at: www.justgiving.com/fundraising/carl-rylett-cycle274



Music composed by Edvard Grieg (Peer Gynt Suite - Aase's Death, Anitra's Dance)

Picture - Otto von Bismarck

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